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★ Discussion on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government bond issue amount ★

Discussion on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government bond issue amount

( Nanchang Uprising of eight one memorial to Chen Hongmo Chen Haiyang )

The twenty or thirty's of last century, China has appeared on a field with vigour and vitality of the Soviet campaign, Jiangxi was the Soviet campaign hottest Province, in addition to Ruijin as the center of the Central Soviet Area, and Northeast Jiangxi (later renamed the Fujian Jiangxi, Hubei and Jiangxi Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet ) etc.. The Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet area which was established in 1931, the" fundamental aspect of all about a thousand miles, nearly nine hundred thousand population." [ 1 ] as the Central Soviet Area barrier, the Hunan-Jiangxi border across two red area at the time of the Soviet movement and the Agrarian Revolutionary War played a significant role in.

In order to support the revolutionary war, the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet people not only gave precious life and blood, but also in manpower, material resources, financial resources have made great contributions, to buy the government bonds is a financially from direct support revolutionary important work. Today, we review the history, review the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet has issued a total of how many bonds, their total is a number, but a whirling sensation. This paper tries to give to this problem discuss, in order to obtain an answer. If there are omissions or inaccuracies, also hope to get the financial sector, party colleagues.

One, the existing data in the literature concerning the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds.

The author reviewed some of the information collected about the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet literature, bond issuance is discussed, the statement as follows.

Statement 1: see with respect to author place, the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bond issue was first recorded in 1987 published" Jiangxi revive area history". Which talks about revolutionary base of the financial business:" in 1932 July, the Provisional Central Government issued ' Revolutionary War short-term bonds ' ( the first period) six hundred thousand yuan, very quickly by masses purchased finished; November issue of ' Revolutionary War short-term bonds ' ( second ) one million two hundred thousand yuan, eighty thousand yuan and overfulfil; 1933 September, issue ' economic construction bonds ' three million yuan, in the time of three many months overfulfiled. In addition, according to some, also released separately bonds, such as Jiangxi Province in 1933 October issued two hundred thousand yuan of bonds, for foreign trade, food supplies and the founder of cooperation in economic construction expenditure;,," [ 2 ] there is no specific Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds in total, refers only to the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet 1933 October bond issue amount. However, in an article published in the Central Soviet area has a three bond issue time and the circulation records are clear, our discussion will have reference value.

Statement 2: 1980 time begin, the CPC Central Committee, collection of information planning organization has published a set of" Chinese Communist history data.". 1990 published" Jiangxi Revolutionary Base" set (including two volumes). The book first volume opens with a" summary", comprehensive, concise introduction to the Jiangxi Revolutionary Base working:" taxation is the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet financial main source. Province, county according to" the Soviet government Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet land and progressive tax collection regulations", land and business taxes, increase finance income. 1932 December to 1933 February, 3 months, the province a total of 170000 yuan of fiscal revenue. From 40000 yuan, was founded in January 15, 1932 in Yongxin province and Jiangxi Bank ( Hu Xiang president ), notes and a mint, casting silver dollar, has issued two revolutionary war and economic construction bonds 600000 yuan in total." [ 3 ] this is the author of the earliest chronicles the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet area to see the total public debt. It is the last word" has issued two revolutionary war and economic construction bonds 600000 yuan" is not clear, can be understood as the issue of revolutionary war bonds and economic construction bonds of each period, together a total of two; can also be understood as issued two revolutionary war bonds and one period of economic construction bonds. From the point of view, like on the back of the more consistent with the author's original meaning. But it said that although the two bond amount, but did not say the issue respectively specific issue volume is a number respectively, but only speak a total, making it difficult for the researcher to careful analysis.

Version 3: 1992, Luo Xianfu Luo Kaihua, editor of the" Jiangxi revolutionary base currency history" a book published, which on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds were introduced, said:" in the central Jiangxi province government approval, to the masses is issued twice (including a replacement period) of bonds, the amount is 430000 yuan." [ 4 ] the book in other places also said:" in 1933 November, the Soviet government for the development of Jiangxi Province revolutionary war, should be the broad masses of the request, in issue 150000 yuan bonds on the basis of second revolution, decided to reissue 200000 yuan for foreign trade, food supplies, founded the cooperative economic construction." [ 5 ] that according to the foregoing 430000 yuan total count, the first issue sold 80000 yuan.

Version 4: 1999 published in the" Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi financial records" it should be said is a more authoritative reference book. It is on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds made a comprehensive introduction to be concise and to the point:" the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet in 1933 the Soviet government issued bonds issued in January 3: revolutionary war bonds during the first half of the year 80000 yuan, repay captital with interest, interest rate of 1 points. National Bank of Jiangxi branch except agent issuing receipts and repay captital with interest, but also to undue bonds pay taxes and masses return bonds work. Released in July second revolutionary war bonds 150000 yuan, repay captital with interest rate one year anniversary, 1 November second; reissue of revolutionary war bonds 200000 yuan, for economy construction, interest every 5 yuan each ocean, debt since 1934 6 year pay, principal since 1937 3 years, received bond payment by the issuing unit to send the bank agency." [ 6 ] although there is no clear out the amount of bonds issued, but only in accordance with the listed number calculates slightly, is not difficult to work out the three bond issue for $430000 total number of.

Statement 5: Published 2002" the Jiangxi local history" Volume I deals with the financial work, specifically introduces the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government's case:" in fourth, five time ' and ' during the revolutionary war, in order to raise funds and economic construction funds, overcome the financial difficulties in two, the Provisional Central Government issuance of short-term revolutionary war bonds and an economic construction bonds tasks at the same time, the area was also issued some local bonds. Jiangxi Province as the Soviet government has 4 issuance of bonds 470000 yuan, the province," [ 7 ] here clearly put forward the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet issue 4 bonds, but it did not specifically refer to each of the circulation, just generally speak a number.

Statement 6: Published 2007" the whole history of Jiangxi Revolutionary Base" one book is to introduce the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet history books. It takes more space to talk about the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government bond issue:" the second half of 1932, the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government in the province within the release of the first issue of 80000 yuan, annual interest of 1, servicing time for July 1, 1933. In October 18, 1933, Jiangxi Province economic construction to a resolution of the meeting, decided to ' construction of complete province economy Congress unanimously agreed to nine county land inventory movement assembly requested the Soviet government issued two hundred thousand yuan two revolution bond proposal, and asked the Soviet government approval to sell quickly, quickly, smoothly in economy construction. The county, District, township should immediately follow the central government issued bonds to issue public bonds program, all levels of the organization committee, the athletes' village, house, organs, groups the most fierce competition, achieve in all Union Congress before completion. Previously issued bonds, should be at the end of ten before all the cash payment to the bank '. ( Note: the Jiangxi Provincial Archives series:" the Hunan-Kiangsi revolution according to the historical." next page 531st Jiangxi people press 1984 Edition ) November, the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government announced the" second revolution" bonds issued regulations, issued second bonds 150000 yuan, annual interest rate 5. Soon after the increase of 200000 yuan, of which 80000 yuan for the foreign trade, 80000 yuan for food supplies, 40000 yuan to help them to expand production." [ 8 ] it has many mistakes ( later analysis ), it is actually indirect Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet government bonds described a total of 430000 yuan of such a conceptThree, conclusion

To sum up, the conclusion can be made:

Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet has issued over 4 bonds. First issuance of Central Soviet revolutionary war short term bonds ( first phase) seventy-four thousand yuan, in 1932 September, November. The Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet revolution second issuance of short-term bonds 80000 yuan, documented the release date was on 1 January 1933, the actual date is earlier. The third was released in July 1, 1933 second revolutionary war bonds, open issue number is 150000 yuan, the actual printed 200000 yuan; fourth 1933 November second additional period of revolution bonds 200000 yuan, at the same time requirements will be the last print more 50000 yuan also issued two issue, this total is 400000 yuan. The 4 bond issue summary total number, we can draw the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds: 550000 total 4000 yuan.

In order to clearly reflect the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet bonds issuance in various claims and the opinion, will concern a situation now list after (see table ), offer reader reference. That is, table I view, bonds of the bonds on bonds issued regulations for printing the name and announced the name, but this article described earlier discussion to the simple, using only is referred to as.

Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet Area in addition to the 4 bond issue, whether also issued bonds? At least from the contact data file also revealed no relevant records. Therefore in the absence of conclusive evidence before appearing, the author thinks the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet 4 issued a total of 550000 4000 yuan of bonds is a stand the test conclusion.

Remote, poor Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet is a population of nearly 900000 of the area. In a short span of less than two years time ( 1932.91934.6 ), the masses here to buy 550000 yuan of Soviet public debt, average per capita exceeds 0.6 yuan of silver dollars, considering the price and consumption level, it should be said that this is a praiseworthy for one's excellent conduct event. The Soviet people with their own practical action, to support the revolutionary war, in support of the red army. They made great contributions to Chinese revolution, should be the people always remember.

October 31, 2009

Revised December 15, 2009

Draft note:

[ 1 ] of hall of Hunan province finance arranges the Hunan-Kiangsi Revolution:" according to the political economic data is extracted and compile, Choi memorabilia" Hunan people press in 1986 July first edition 667th page

[ 2 ] Xia Daohan Chen Liming with" Jiangxi revive area history" Jiangxi people's publishing house, 1987 first edition 299th page

[ 3 ]" Jiangxi Revolutionary Base" history data collection, collaborative group:" Chinese Communist history data series, Jiangxi Revolutionary Base" ( on) information on Chinese history press first edition in 1990 eleventh pages

[ 4 ] Luo Kaihua Luo Xianfu editor:" Jiangxi revolutionary base currency history" China Financial Publishing House in 1992 June first edition ninety-second page

[ 5 ] ibid, the 111112 page.

[ 6 ]" Jiangxi financial Chi" editorial board": Jiangxi province Jiangxi Mount Huangshan Soviet area financial records, financial" Publishing House published in November 199, first edition 458th page

[ 7 ] of the CPC Jiangxi Provincial Committee Party History Research:" the Jiangxi local history" volume Jiangxi people press in 2002 October first edition 366th page

[ 8 ] Chen Gang Huang Huiyun Ouyang Xiaohua:" the whole history of Jiangxi Revolutionary Base" Jiangxi publishing group of Jiangxi people's Publishing House in 2007 first edition 207th page

[ 9 ] Chen Hongmo:" on the second revolution of Jiangxi bonds circulation"" Southern heritage" 2005 the fourth period 109110 page

[ 10 ] Yu Boliu Ling step machine:" history of Central Soviet Area in Central Soviet Area, the economic construction" Jiangxi people press in 2001 September first edition 719th page

[ 11 ]" the central Jiangxi Province on the Soviet government directives" (September 13, 1932 ) the original" Red China" [ 3 ] the thirty-third period with 380381 page

[ 12 ] of Jiangxi provincial Party committee work report ( December 19, 1932) Jiangxi province archives series:" the Hunan-Kiangsi revolution according to the historical." two Jiangxi people's publishing house, 1984 first edition page 155th


Chen Hongmo:" on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet first period of revolutionary war bonds issued and some situation about the" Jiangxi Institute of coins numismatic" host" ( published in 2006 second issue )

Chen Hongmo:" on the Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet second revolutionary war bonds and related case" Jiangxi Institute of coins numismatic" host" ( published in 2009 first issue )

(author: Nanchang Uprising of eight one Memorial zip code: 330009)

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