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★ Nanchang Uprising took some situation research ★

Nanchang Uprising took some situation research


( Nanchang eight one Uprising Memorial Hall, Liu Xiaohua )


[Abstract ] in Nanchang Uprising started armed struggle against the Kuomintang reactionaries first shot to the heroic feat, independent leadership of the Communist Party of the new people's army was born the important symbol, is loaded into the annals of China's revolution. Nanchang Uprising throughout the battle lasted nearly 5 hours, destroyed the enemy garrison Nanchang department. In this paper, based on the memoir, newspapers and other historical documents, the actual number of Nanchang Uprising army wiped out on the defenders, as well as the enemy preparation and other related issues by carding and textual criticism.


[Key words] Nanchang Uprising troops prepared enemy number


August 1, 1927 morning, Nanchang Uprising army units according to a predetermined combat deployment to the enemy attack. The battle lasted nearly 5 hours, and at dawn on August 1st, Nanchang City and outside the large army was annihilated, the battle achieved a decisive victory. When stationed in Nanchang enemy how many? Actual in destroying the enemy? Nanchang Uprising before starting, the enemy is unprepared, hands to escape? Study of Nanchang Uprising article though, but these problems are not discussed much. I don't have so ugly, on Nanchang Uprising on the defenders related problems discussed.


A number of enemies, in Nanchang


At that time the enemy garrison Nanchang Nanchang Uprising in number, Liu Baicheng" by mark" in an article said:" our party's Front Committee, Ye Ting, He Long and other army in August 1st when the siege of Zhu Peide, Cheng Qian noon in Nanchang team about more than 3000 people, namely the surrender of dawn." [1 ] [ P134] Nie Rongzhen wrote in a 1977" Nanchang Uprising historical significance and experience of" one article points out eight one enemies in Nanchang Uprising" in terms of strength comparison of emptiness, Zhu Peide has 1 directly under the guards regiment, the third army of the two group and the Ninth Army in the 1 regiment, the total strength of approximately 6000 people." [2] Nanchang Uprising, eleventh army twenty-four division seventy-two regiment three battalion Yuan Yelie recalled his chief of staff of the division in the battle plan report at the meeting said:" the strength of the enemy, is one of Zhu Peide's guards regiment, the two regiment army, Sixth Army, Ninth Army, one regiment of the two regiment, plus the remaining organs a total of about ten thousand people." [3 ] [ P401] Chen Zijian recalls: was stationed in Nanchang Kuomintang reactionary forces, with Zhu Peide's Fifth Army headquarters and subordinate guards regiment, the army 's two regiment, a regiment of the Sixth Army of Cheng Qian and the Ninth Army two Jin Handing group, a total of about ten thousand people, compared to the rebels, are inferior. [4] Xiao Ke editor of the" Nanchang Uprising" one wrote:" Nanchang in and around only Zhu Peide the army hat headquarters and guards regiment, the third twenty-third, twenty-four regiment, fifty-seventh regiment of the Sixth Army, Ninth Army, seventy-ninth eighty regiment, Nanchang garrison command and false province government. A total of six troops, a group number about ten thousand people". [5 ] [ P29-30]


From the above section materials, can be roughly determined when stationed in Nanchang enemy are Zhu Peide's Fifth Army guards regiment, the Wang Jun army eighth division twenty-three regiment, twenty-four regiment; Cheng Qian Sixth Army nineteenth division fifty-seven regiment; Jin Handing Ninth Army twenty-seventh division seventy-nine regiment, eighty regiment. But historical materials on the number of enemy soldiers several regiments were three thousand, six thousand, ten thousand more than person said. Then, on the defenders to Nanchang is a number?


First look at the enemy army twenty-three regiment, twenty-four regiment number. Ye Ting division twenty-four division seventy-two regiment three battalion Yuan Yelie in the division after the meeting on the morning of July 31st, up to the attack of the enemy army twenty-three corps," found that the enemy has a regiment, a battalion, seven infantry, a heavy machine-gun company, a total of more than two main forces, than the original estimate of the strength of the division was much. One of our camp, to annihilate the two times in his enemies, it?" [6 ] [ P401] thus: the enemy forces for twenty-three regiment three battalion Yuan Yelie rate two times. The three battalion of the eleven army twenty-four division a total of about 5500 people participated in the uprising. Xiao Ke recalled the twenty-four division at the time of the system is : the twenty-four division under the jurisdiction of three groups ( seventy, seventy-one, seventy-two ), each regiments three battalion. [7] according to memories of Li Yimin: the twenty-four division and formed a new unit to teach about 400 people. [8 ] [ P270] comprehensive estimate Yuan Yelie that a battalion of about 550 people, the introduction of twenty-three group of numbers about 1100 people. Then the enemy Wang Jun twenty-three groups, twenty-four regiment two regiment number about 2200 people.


The enemy Sixth Army fifty-seven group numbers according to Liu Baicheng" counter-revolutionary" forces central Jiangxi outline table to calculate. Wang Jun was the third military forces in about fourteen thousand, Cheng Qian the Sixth Army has about twelve thousand people around. [9 ] [P146 ] the two army total number is only 2000 people, specific to a group, the number of difference. With reference to twenty-three regiment, twenty-four regiment number of the enemy, Cheng Qian Sixth Army fifty-seven Corps number was estimated to be about 1000 people. Then, Wang Jun, Cheng Qian three group total strength to around 3200 people.


The enemy army regiment, eighty regiment ninth seventy-nine Yang Ruxuan new nineteenth division, the number of less than normal compilation. According to Liu Baicheng" counter-revolutionary" forces central Jiangxi summary table [ 10] [ P146 ]: Jin Handing Yang Ruxuan in Nanchang, Linchuan area total force with only three thousand people. Liu Baicheng in the" down" by Nanchang Uprising in the recording:" August 7th, our army to Linchuan, Yang Ruxuan's army of about two thousand men not flee war, to the South to." [11 ] [ P136] therefore stationed in Nanchang enemy seventy-nine regiment, eighty regiment of troops for a total of about 1000 people.


Zhu Peide's Fifth Army guards regiment is a municipality directly under the central government" elite troops, its forces are at least one thousand more than person". [12 ] [ P47] according to the Lu Deming rate of second army headquarters guards regiment to the Nanchang Uprising that was the number of response: second guards regiment number is 1000 more than person, then the Fifth Army guards regiment number is the same.


To sum up, the enemy six regiment force of about 5200 people. In addition to Wang Jun garrison command a guard even, [13 ] [ P227] Jiangxi province government guard, Wang Jun residence, Secretary of front garrison command, cattle stations and other scattered the enemy soldiers, the total Nanchang defending enemy for about 6000 people. In view of this, the historical data in Nanchang defending enemy that only 3000 people, were estimated too low, and more than 10000 people overestimate.


In two, this number


Nanchang Uprising on a war this number, Jiao Qikai in a October 25, 1927 report wrote: " in August 1st in Nanchang uprising ... ... Zhu Peide, Cheng Qian is a force of about three group people". [14 ] [P105 ] previously estimated, three regiment number approximately 3200 people around. After the uprising fighting, a part of the enemy forces out run out. According to" the Hankou Republic Daily" published in August 12th:" is the service, the Communist army plan capture of the city in the fifth front army of about two of all firearms; nine army group more than out of hue door to Linchuan to take a walk, armed forces from the Department of Ji'an." [15 ] therefore, three, nine respectively, the enemy army fled, the number of the at least one above the regiment. Another August 14th Shanghai" news" had published a reporter the interview day reported: "the fruit to one forty, six army fifty-seven Corps first attack, to be in Kuang Lu middle school ( which in a fire and is intended ), number of shots rang, eleven army from the external shots scored, six army to be taken by surprise. When killed more than 50 people, while stationed near the pine Lane Church of the six army, also continue to out of the team, to the salt granary, eleven army had now alley by. Both sides fired on strike ... ... The six army was disarmed, hundreds of, more than all Xiexie escape." [16] this historical material against six army disarmed only hundreds of people, the rest of the enemy escaped.


In conclude escape enemy number at about two to three between missions. In Nanchang subtracted from the total number of the enemy to escape, this number can be obtained about 3000 more than person. Of course, this includes to disarm the enemy number. But after the uprising, captured enemy mostly released. Guo Moruo is in after the uprising to Nanchang, coated in home port station is a train of three carriages are packed with soldiers, the platform also crowded better clothing is not the whole of soldiers. On the platform there are no symbol" unarmed soldiers, apparently in Nanchang disarmed Cheng Qian and Zhu Peide's forces." [17 ] [ P222]


In three, the preparations for the


Nanchanguprising that night, rebel according to scout good target, direction, way, on the unprepared enemy surprise attack. The enemy are at a loss, quickly surrendered. But from at present to collect historical materials, Nanchang Uprising on the defenders to still be aware of, and prevention. This one of the main reasons is a traitor to the enemy. Ye Ting in Nanchang Uprising" to the Chaoshan failure" said:" August 1st morning two when contact Wuhan army, violent battle ( with He Long belonged to a battalion commander in the advance disclosure of the confidential information, the enemy has tight guard ). Coming from Nanchang City until dawn." [18 ] [ P128-129] Zhou Yiqun said in a October 30, 1927 report: "is the first regiment of Zhao Ying He Zhi, who was in the evening of Yunnan, plans to send Zhu Bu a colonel, and with Zhu De's investigation identified, but temporary changes, two hours in advance. To twelve thirty, which found the enemy to know in advance, of course, be prepared, it until daybreak, was completely resolved." [19 ] Li Lisan recalled:" is a late twenty army commander let the cat out of the bag, to increase the action when a lot of difficulties, to the next morning six when was three, six, nine army in Nanchang army completely disarmed." [20 ]


The traitor is a division twentieth army camp in the three group deputy commander Zhao Fusheng. Around nine, he got into the enemy Fifth Army Headquarters informers, the uprising planned leak. His fifth army headquarters prior to fully prepared, once the He Long Department of the first division in the assault encountered greater obstacle.


If not for Zhao Fusheng to mutiny, whether the enemy didn't know?


We can learn from Yuan Yelie" eight one gun" in one article see segment of a whole. Yuan Bu is scheduled to start walking before nightfall, more than an hour to nearby enemy barracks ( should be eight p.m.). Then the battalion adjutant with soldiers and enemy contact camping. At this time, the enemy is also good to remind our staff aide says:" just then inform the higher authorities, said tonight the city forces moving frequently, should pay attention to prevent the occurrence of something, you strengthen the alert." [21 ] [ P402] from enemy chief this sentence at that time could the enemy's high command in attention uprising forces trends. While this should occur in Zhao Fusheng before defecting to the enemy off, otherwise, the superior is not notify the lower" pay attention to prevent the occurrence of something" so simple, but should be:" tonight the troops to the riots, ready to fight!" Thereafter," the enemy is not complete paralysis, they sent a team of a squad armed with guns, and glittering bayonets, constantly patrolled outside the barracks. They even go to camping forces near look and see, if somewhat vigilant like." [22 ] [ P403]


In addition, Huang Xu recalled: on day thirty-one, Ceng San 's investigation into the. The first time to pretend cooks give them water, water pick over, the days are dark. But the third time out, the gate has been filled with sand, a guard, sentinel, are not allowed to go, after several twists and turns to mix up. [23] while Huang Xu weeks later in two the enemy detection, but on a mission, he could not stay in the camp. The preparation should not be because Zhao Fusheng know to news.


In addition to Zhao Fusheng this traitor to any other active informant, and discloses the news? Should say, this is unlikely.


First of all, the main leaders pay great attention to the uprising uprise army confidential.


July 30th afternoon 2 when the left and right sides, Ye Ting in art at twenty-fourth division headquarters is located in a building within the classroom, held above the camp officers meeting. In order to keep the venue, arranged around a watch, take strict precautions against plans leaked. [24 ] [ P400]


At the same time, He Long in the twentieth army headquarters also held above the head officer conference. In announcing the plans uprising, assigned to the combat mission, in order to prevent the news leaked, decided to send troops are not reliable for junior officers for Communist Party members. [25 ] [ P390]


Secondly, in order to successfully complete the task that the uprising, plan after the mission, the battalion commander high vigilance, attaches great importance to ensure the secret battle plan.


Received the task twenty-four division seventy-two regiment three battalion Yuan Yelie takes into account:" in our camp officers, the deputy commander is the National Party member, the company commander, instructor in three members of the Kuomintang, the Communist Party members in more than a platoon. These members of the Kuomintang and although considered to be progressive, may follow the Communist Party went, but to the Kuomintang army's firm, has yet to be tested. Especially because they have a lot of Whampoa students in each other, naturally or half unconsciously to send a message is possible. In order to observe military secrets, guarantee the victory of the battle, I will personally to organize the prewar preparation." [26 ] [P401 ] command issued a class cadre step by step, even until the thirty-one day in the evening before the troops moved to combat mission. Until the night battle is about to start shooting a moment before, "the commander called three platoon slept together, whispering begrudgingly was discussed for a while; then platoon and three monitor sleep together on a monitor; finally still and soldiers on a." [27 ] [ P403] can be seen from, in order to prevent uprisings plan leaked, the communication process is very close.


In Nanchang Uprising coated country forest warrior recalls: " uprising day before suddenly received orders, moved to the small camp. Arrive at the camp, sleep soon top to inform, inform: I'm afraid something tonight, to wake up. Sleep wake up, was ordered to emergency set. The captain declared mission is to destroy the enemy in battle, near." [28 ] [ P240] that is to say, most of the men until the uprising until the moment you know combat mission. Therefore, the traitor Zhao Fusheng until the uprising that evening around 9 will go to the enemy division. After the uprising plans have been strictly confidential, until 31 at about 9 pm, He Long forces to specific operational tasks are communicated to the battalion level officer.


Since no other officers and soldiers leaked news, what is the reason that causes the enemy to prepare?


According to the enemy military mission twenty regimental Deputy lieutenant colonel Jiang Wenguang later recalled:" the night of July 31st, I see Ye Ting on the street, He Long's forces is a little different, rushed for twenty-one Group Commander Li Shilong Lee immediately noticed, or force out of nanchang. But once there, met Zhu De and Li Shilong are chatting." Zhu De saw me that is a purpose, ranging from the show, took me: ' text, we have to walk the streets. ' Less than two hours, a shot rang out over the street." [29 ] [ P98]


It is before the rebellion forces caused by the frequent mobility alert. In July 31st, the army commander under this part in combat mission, began to split up, with friends, visit the friendly name such as planned, a destination for the enemy and operational environment.

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